Research paradigm

Research Paradigm

  • मानिसको आ-आफ्नै बिश्वास र सोचाई हुन सक्छन
  • ontology र epistemology लाई Research paradigm को दार्शनिक आधार मानिन्छ।


  • सत्य भन्ने कुरा हाम्रो काबू बहिरको कुरा हो, यो यही समाजमा अवस्थित छ र त्यों शास्वत सत्य हो।
  • बैज्ञानिक पद्धतिद्वारा उकत सत्य जस्ताको तस्तै पत्ता लगाऊन सकिन्छ
  • बस्तुगत हुन्छ र यसलाई अनुसन्धानकर्ताको बिषयगत बिचारले फरक पार्देन
  • sample छनौट गरेको population मा त्यसलाई सामान्यीकरण


  • करिब पुग्न सकिने तर बाहिरी संसारमै बस्तुगत सत्य छ भन्ने कुरामा भने पूर्ण बिश्वास गर्दैन
  • अवलोकन गर्नु भएको वा संकलन गर्नु भएको तथ्य भित्रै अन्तर्निहित (grounded) हुन्छ
  • तथ्यांक संकलन प्रक्रियाले सत्य भन्ने कुरा कुनै न कुनै रुपमा बिषयगत हुन पुग्दछ
  • evidence-based realities मात्र मान्दछ न कि positivism ले जस्तो absolute truth
  • अर्को रुपमा यसलाई critical realism पनि भनिन्छ जसले ज्ञानको निर्माण समाजबाटै हुने भएता पनि संरचनात्मक रूपमा बैज्ञानिक सिद्धान्तलाई पनि नकार्दैन


  • सत्य समाजमा रहने मानिसहरूले निर्माण गर्ने हो
  • constructivism मा बिश्वास गर्छ
  • positivism को ठ्याक्कै अर्को ध्रूब हो


  • कुनै research question ले positivism र कुनैले interpretivism खोजेमा
  • खासगरी mix-method research मा

Types of Qualitative Research

  1. Case Study:
    • Purpose: To provide an in-depth analysis of a particular case or a small number of cases.
    • Methods: Interviews, observations, document analysis, and sometimes quantitative data.
    1. Title: Case Study on the Implementation of a Learning Management System (LMS) in a University Setting
    2. Purpose: Investigation of a Learning Management System (LMS) in a university, examining how the integration of digital tools influences teaching and learning practices.
    3. Case Description:
      (a)University Background: A mid-sized university transitioning to a more technology-driven educational approach.
      (b) Digital Tool: Implementation of a comprehensive Learning Management System (LMS) designed to facilitate course delivery, content management, and online collaboration.
    4. Methods:
    5. Interviews: Conducting interviews with key stakeholders, including faculty members, students, administrators, and IT support staff, to gather diverse perspectives on the implementation of the LMS.
    6. Observations: Observing actual classes and online interactions facilitated by the LMS to understand how instructors and students engage with the digital tool in real-time.
    7. Document Analysis: Reviewing institutional documents, training materials, and usage statistics related to the LMS implementation.
    8. Contextual Factors:
      (a)Investigating the broader context, such as the university's goals for adopting digital tools, the training provided to faculty, and the institutional strategies for integrating technology into the curriculum.
      (b)Challenges and Successes:Identifying challenges faced during the implementation process, including technical issues, resistance to change, and adjustments made to overcome these challenges. Examining success stories and positive outcomes related to the use of the LMS in enhancing teaching efficiency, student engagement, and learning outcomes.
      (c) Student and Faculty Experiences:Capturing the experiences of both students and faculty members through surveys or focus group discussions to understand their perceptions, preferences, and experiences with the LMS.
      (d) Usage Patterns:Analyzing data on LMS usage patterns, including the frequency of logins, types of activities performed, and the utilization of various features, to gain insights into the tool's effectiveness.

  2. Ethnography

    1. Ethnography:
      • Purpose: To study and understand the culture of a group of people by immersing the researcher in their environment.
      • Methods: Participant observation, interviews, and document analysis.
    2. Critical Ethnography:
      • Purpose: To examine power relationships and social injustices within a particular cultural context.
      • Methods: Emphasizes a critical perspective and often involves collaboration with participants to bring about social change.
    1. Title: Ethnograpgy study of Digital Learning Environments in a College
    2. Purpose: To study and understand the culture of a college classroom that incorporates digital tools for teaching, assessment and overall learning experience.
    3. Methods:
    4. Participant Observation: The researcher spends an extended period in a college classroom where digital tools are integrated into the curriculum. This involves observing how students engage with technology during lectures, group activities, and individual study sessions. The researcher may also participate in online forums or virtual classrooms if digital tools extend beyond the physical classroom.
    5. Interviews: Conducting interviews with students, instructors, and possibly IT support staff to gain insights into their experiences, perceptions, and challenges related to the use of digital tools in education. Questions might explore attitudes towards technology, the impact on teaching methods, and student learning outcomes.
    6. Document Analysis: Examining digital artifacts such as course materials, online discussions, and other documents to understand how these tools are used, what content is emphasized, and how students contribute to the digital learning environment.

  3. Phenomenology:
    • Purpose: To explore and understand individuals' experiences of a particular phenomenon.
    • Methods: In-depth interviews, participant observation, and analysis of personal reflections.
    1. Title: Phenomenological Study on the Student Experience of Virtual Learning Platforms
    2. Purpose: To explore and understand the lived experiences of students using virtual learning platforms in higher education.The focus is on understanding the essence of their experiences rather than generalizing or categorizing behaviors.
    3. Methods:
    4. In-depth Interviews: Conducting in-depth, open-ended interviews with a (diverse) group of students who have experienced virtual learning. The interviews would explore their personal experiences, emotions, and perceptions related to using digital tools, the [explicitely] impact on their learning, and any challenges or positive aspects they have encountered.
    5. Participant Diaries or Journals: Providing participants with the option to maintain diaries or journals to capture their day-to-day experiences with digital tools in the learning environment. This method allows for a more reflective and personal account of their experiences.
    6. Focus Group Discussions: Organizing focus group discussions to encourage participants to share and discuss their experiences collectively. This method can bring out shared themes and variations in experiences, fostering a deeper understanding of the collective student experience.
    7. Phenomenological Reduction: Applying phenomenological reduction, a process where the researcher brackets preconceived notions and interpretations to focus solely on the essence of the phenomenon – in this case, the essence of the students' lived experiences with digital tools in virtual learning.

  4. Grounded Theory:
    • Purpose: To develop theories based on the data collected, allowing concepts to emerge from the study rather than being imposed in advance.
      To generate a theory that explains a particular social process or phenomenon.
    • Methods: Constant comparative analysis, coding, and theoretical sampling.
      Systematic data coding and constant comparison.
    1. Title: Grounded Theory Study on the Emergence of Collaborative Learning Structures in Online Courses
    2. Purpose: To explain how collaborative learning structures evolve within the context of online courses that utilize digital tools.
    3. Methods:
    4. Data Collection: The researcher collects data through a variety of sources such as interviews, observations, and documents related to online courses. This may include recordings of online discussions, transcripts of collaborative activities, and course materials that showcase the use of digital tools.
    5. Open Coding: Through open coding, the researcher systematically analyzes the collected data, identifying and labeling concepts related to collaborative learning structures. This process involves breaking down the data into meaningful segments and generating initial codes.
    6. Constant Comparative Analysis: Using constant comparative analysis, the researcher continuously compares data, looking for patterns and relationships between codes. New data is constantly compared with existing data, and CODERS ARE REFINED OR MERGED as the analysis progresses.
    7. Theoretical Sampling: Based on the emerging theory, the researcher purposefully samples new data to further develop and refine categories and concepts. For instance, if initial analysis suggests that certain types of digital tools foster more collaboration, the researcher might conduct additional interviews or collect more data specifically related to those tools.
    8. Memoing: Throughout the study, the researcher keeps detailed memos documenting thoughts, ideas, and reflections on the evolving theory. Memos help in organizing and making sense of the data and contribute to the development of the grounded theory.
    9. Theoretical Saturation: The process continues until theoretical saturation is reached, meaning that new data no longer adds substantially to the emerging theory. At this point, the researcher has developed a grounded theory that explains the phenomenon of collaborative learning structures in online courses that use digital tools.

  5. Narrative Inquary:
    • Purpose: To explore and understand the stories people tell and the meanings they attach to those stories
    • Methods: Interviews, personal narratives, and analysis of storytelling.
    1. Title: Narrative Inquiry on Student Experiences with E-Learning Platforms
    2. Purpose: To explore and understand students' personal stories and experiences with the use of digital tools, specifically e-learning platforms, in the context of higher education.
    3. Methods:
    4. In-Depth Interviews: Conducting individual in-depth interviews. The interviews focus on eliciting rich, detailed narratives about their experiences, challenges, and successes with digital tools in their educational journey.
    5. Personal Digital Artifacts: Encouraging participants to share their personal digital artifacts related to e-learning, such as screenshots of online discussions, collaborative project documents, or reflections created using digital tools. These artifacts serve as supplementary materials to enrich the narrative accounts.
    6. Storytelling Workshops: Organizing storytelling workshops where participants have the opportunity to craft and share their narratives in a supportive group setting. This collaborative approach allows for the emergence of shared themes and collective reflections on the use of digital tools in education.
    7. Analysis of Digital Narratives: Applying narrative analysis techniques to the collected data, including the interviews, personal artifacts, and workshop outputs. This involves identifying common themes, plot structures, and emotional arcs within the stories shared by participants.
    8. Key Aspects of the Narrative Inquiry:
    9. Emphasis on Personal Stories: The focus is on individual students' unique experiences with digital tools, allowing for a deeper understanding of their subjective viewpoints and how these tools impact their learning journey.
    10. Contextualization of Experiences: Participants are encouraged to situate their narratives within the broader context of their educational experiences, providing insights into how the use of digital tools intersects with various aspects of their academic and personal lives.
    11. Co-Construction of Narratives: Through interviews, artifact sharing, and storytelling workshops, the narrative inquiry involves a collaborative process where participants actively contribute to the construction of their own and others' narratives.

  6. Meta/Content Analysis:
    • Purpose: To analyze and interpret the content of various forms of communication, such as texts, images, or media.
    • Methods: Systematic coding and categorization of content.
  7. Action Research:
    • Purpose: To study and improve specific situations or practices collaboratively with the participants.
    • Methods: Iterative cycles of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting.

Types of Quantitative Research

  1. Descriptive Research:
    • Purpose: To describe the characteristics of a phenomenon.
    • Methods: Surveys, observational studies, and content analysis to summarize and present data.

  2. Survey Research

    1. Survey Research:
      • Purpose: To gather information from a sample of a population using standardized questionnaires.
      • Methods: Surveys can be conducted through interviews, online forms, or mailed questionnaires.
    2. Longitudinal Research:
      • Purpose: To study changes in variables over an extended period.
      • Methods: Data is collected from the same subjects at multiple points in time.
    3. Cross-sectional Research:
      • Purpose: To collect data from participants at a single point in time.
      • Methods: Surveys, interviews, or observations are conducted at a specific moment.

  3. Correlational Research:
    • Purpose: To identify relationships and associations between two or more variables.
    • Methods: Statistical analysis to measure the strength and direction of relationships without causation.

  4. Experimental Research

    1. Experimental Research:
      • Purpose: To establish cause-and-effect relationships between variables.
      • Methods: Controlled experiments with manipulation of an independent variable and observation of its effects on a dependent variable.
    2. Quasi-experimental Research:
      • Purpose: Similar to experimental research but lacks random assignment of participants to groups
      • Methods: Includes manipulation of variables but lacks the full control seen in experimental designs.
    3. Causal-Comparative Research:
      • Purpose: To identify causes or consequences of existing conditions or differences between groups.
      • Methods: Compares groups that already differ on a variable, but without random assignment.
      1. Title: Impact of Digital Learning Platforms on Academic Achievement in High School Mathematics
      2. Objective:To examine the causal relationship between the use of digital learning platforms and academic achievement in high school mathematics.
      3. Participants:Two groups of high school students from different schools.
        Group A: Students who have regularly used digital learning platforms in their mathematics classes.
        Group B: Students who have received traditional, non-digital instruction in mathematics.
      4. Independent Variable:Use of digital learning platforms for mathematics instruction.
        Dependent Variable: Academic achievement in mathematics, measured through standardized test scores and end-of-year grades.
        Control Variables:Prior academic performance.Socioeconomic status.Teacher effectiveness.
      5. Data Collection:Gather historical academic records of students from both groups.Collect standardized test scores in mathematics for both groups.Administer surveys to students to gather information on their experiences with digital tools and attitudes toward mathematics.
      6. Data Analysis:Compare the academic performance of Group A and Group B using statistical methods such as t-tests or analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Control for the influence of other variables (control variables) to isolate the impact of the independent variable.

    4. Ex post facto Research:
      • Purpose: Investigates the possible causes of a condition after it has occurred.
      • Methods: Examines existing conditions and looks for factors that might explain the observed outcomes.
    5. Example
      1. Title: Examining the Impact of Prior Digital Literacy on ICT in Math Course
      2. Objective:To investigate the influence of students' prior exposure to digital tools and technology on performence on ICT in Math Course
      3. Participants:
        Group A: Students with a history of extensive exposure to digital tools and technology .
        Group B: Students with limited exposure to digital tools and technology.
      4. Independent Variable:Level of exposure to digital tools and technology .
      5. Dependent Variable:performance on ICT course, measured through exams.
      6. Control Variables:Socioeconomic background.Previous academic performance.Access to extracurricular STEM activities.
      7. Data Collection:Gather information on students' digital literacy skills and exposure to technology through surveys and interviews. Obtain entrance exam scores and early college performance in ICT in Math for both groups.
      8. Data Analysis: Compare the college test outcomes of Group A and Group B using statistical methods such as regression analysis or analysis of variance (ANOVA).

    6. Meta-analysis:
      • Purpose: To analyze and integrate the findings from multiple studies on the same topic.
      • Methods: Statistical techniques are used to combine results from different studies to identify patterns or trends.
    7. Action Research:
      • Purpose: To study and improve specific situations or practices collaboratively with the participants.
      • Methods: Iterative cycles of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting.

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